International Treaties And Law Of Environment In India: An Overview


  • Dr. Ram Charan Meena



Environmental Protection,, International Treaties,, Air Pollution,, Water Pollution,, PIL,, Indian Constitution and Judiciary.


To address environmental issues that India and other countries face, it is essential and very important to commence action at all levels like global, regional, national, local, and community. It is not adequate to have international agreements, treaties and instruments on environmental issues and various problems but completion, implementation and enforcement of these policies and agreements to a large extent determine their impact and effectiveness. In the last few decades, there has been an increasing concern and consciousness about the need to protect the environment, nationally and internationally. Under the structure of the Indian Constitution, a number of Articles are enumerated in which environmental duties to preserve the natural resources of the country have been stated like Articles 48–A and 51–A[g]. Additionally, the Constitution also provides procedures in Articles 252 and 253 for adopting national legislations in regard to the needs of the States. The constitutional mandates and other environmental laws or regulations in India effective, successful and urgent need to streamline enforcement. The creative and innovative role of Indian Judiciary and National Green Tribunal [NGT] has been significant and laudable in this era. In this research paper, an effort has been made to momentarily outline the various Indian legislations and international treaties relating to the environment, which are mainly and more relevant to protect and improve the environment in India. The enforcement, scope and limit of these legislations has also been critically examined and evaluated in systematically manner. Protection of the environment and keeping ecological balance in Indian scenario unaffected is a task which not only the Government but also every individual, association, society, industry and corporation must undertake. It is a social compulsion and fundamental duty enshrined in Article 51–A[g] of the Indian Constitution.


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Lavanya Rajamani [2007], Public Interest Environmental Litigation in India: Exploring Issues of Access, Participation, Equity, Effectiveness and

Sustainability, Journal of Environmental Law, at pp. 293–321.

Nature Lovers Movement v. State of Kerala AIR 2000 Ker 131; Indian Handicrafts Emporium v. Union of India AIR 2003 SC 3240.

Bombay Dyeing and Mfg. Co. Ltd. v. Bombay Environmental Action Group and Ors AIR 2006 SC 1489; Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India

and Ors AIR 2000 SC 3751.

State of West Bengal v. Kesoram Industries Ltd. and Ors [2004] 10 SCC 201; State of Punjab v. Devans Modern Brewaries Ltd. and Anr [2004] 11

SCC 26.

Madireddy Padma Rambabu v. District Forest Officer Kakinada E.G. District and Ors AIR 2002 AP 256.

Article 48–A: “The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.”; Article

–A[g]: “To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures”.

Intellectual Forum v. State of A.P., AIR 2006 SC 1350.

The Indian Forest Act, 1927; the Factories Act, 1948 and the Atomic Energy Act, 1962.

AIR 1985 SC 652.

Upendra Baxi [1982], Taking Suffering Seriously: Social Action Litigation and the Supreme Court, International Commission of Jurists Review, at pp.


Municipal Council, Ratlam v. Vardhichand AIR 1980 SC 1622.

Olga Tellis v. Bombay Municipal Corporation AIR 1986 SC 180.

Vide 42nd amendment in the Indian Constitution.

Articles 48–A and 51–A[g] of the Indian Constitution.

Annual Report of the Ministry of Environment and Forests [MEF], 2002–2003.

Annual Report of the Ministry of Environment and Forests [MEF], 1997–2002.

Annual Report of the Ministry of Environment and Forests [MEF], 2002-2007.

AIR 1996 SC 2715.

AIR 1999 SC 812.

Indian Council for Enviro–Legal Action v. Union of India AIR 1996 SC 1446.

Vellore Citizens Welfare Forum v. Union of India AIR 1996 SC 2715.

Evaluation of Environmental Laws and Proposals for Reforms: A Report, prepared by the Centre for Environmental Law Education Research and

Advocacy Research Team, Mumbai, 1998.

AIR 1996 SC 1977.

The Member–Secretary, Kerala State Board for Prevention & Control of Water Pollution, Kawadiar, Trivandrum v. The Gwalior Rayon Silk

Manufacturing [Weaving] Company Ltd., Kozhikode and Ors AIR 1986 Ker 256.

[1999] 2 SCC 718.

[1986] 2 SCC 176.

1996 (3) SCC 212.

M.C. Mehta v. Union of India AIR 1988 SC 1037.

[1990] 1 KLT 580.

M.C. Mehta v. State of Orissa AIR 1992 Ori 225.

AIR 2000 SC 1256.

B.L Wadehra [Dr.] v. Union of India AIR 1996 SC 2969.

AIR 1996 SC 2715.

M.C. Mehta v. Union of India [1997] 1 Camp L.J. 199 [SC].

Indian Council for Enviro–Legal Action v. Union of India AIR 1996 SC 1446.


DOI: 10.53724/ambition/v6n2.05
Published: 21-08-2021

How to Cite

Dr. Ram Charan Meena. (2021). International Treaties And Law Of Environment In India: An Overview. Research Ambition an International Multidisciplinary E-Journal, 6(II), 27–35.